It can be gut-wrenching for a parent to see their child in constant tears, locking themselves away in their room, or throwing fits of anger.
Experts say these emotions are normal — to an extent. But sometimes they can be signs of deeper mental health issues.
CBC News asked experts on youth mental health what parents should consider if they're worried about their child.
If you're worried about your child, listen to what they're telling you, says Dr. Jackie Goodwin, a psychologist and the team lead of the Insight youth mental health day program.
"Sometimes adolescents do tell us, 'Hey, I'm not doing so well' or, 'I'm really worried about this.' Or maybe something in their behavior is signaling that they're stressed or struggling with something. So I'm always a fan of listening, listening, listening to a lot."
While it's the norm for children to be stressed or worried or angry sometimes if they're experiencing these emotions most of the time it might be cause for concern.
"If we look at all the negative emotions that young people have, most of them are normal. Most of them are expected and actually most of them are necessary to help build adaptation and resilience," said Dr. Stan Kutcher, a psychiatrist who specializes in adolescent mental health.
But there is a but.
"If a parent see things such as severe and persistent negative emotions, weeks and weeks of a particular — say sadness, low mood, crying, withdrawn — if they see that, that should be a signal, well maybe this is different than the usual emotional ups and downs of adolescence," said Kutcher.
One of the key signs there might be an issue is when the emotions the child is experiencing are getting in the way of their day to day life.
"Things to watch for if they were concerned about their child's mental health would be a change in routine — sleeping, eating, change in peer group, their habits, maybe some isolation or kind of withdrawing from the community, said Lorna Hutt, the mental health counsellor with the student well-being team in the Westisle family of schools.
Hutt said anxiety is one of the most common issues she sees in the youth she works with.
"Instead of going to school, the child stays at home in their room. Instead of doing well in school as they usually have done, their grades start to drop. Instead of participating in extracurricular activities … they stop doing that," said Kutcher. "Those are key things that if parents see they can say, 'Gosh, maybe … something else is going on.'"
"I always like to say that parents are the best experts in their kids usually," said Goodwin. "They've got a lot of history. Most parents know, I think, when a youth is off track."
If a child says they want to kill themselves, it's important to put that comment into context, said Kutcher.
"Young people use those terms, they use that language when they're frustrated, when they're angry," he said.
"It's really important not to panic, not to take these things out of context. The important thing here is the parent has to know their child."
He said if those statements are consistent — that the child expresses suicidal thoughts on a regular or frequent basis — that is cause for concern.
Kutcher said family history is also important to look at as suicide does run in the family.
"If there is a history of suicide in the family, if there are signs and symptoms of a mental disorder that this young person is having, if the discussion of suicide is persistent — then that young person is in a much higher risk category than if a youngster uses those phrases occasionally when they're angry, upset or feeling badly," he said.
If a parent is concerned, they should seek advice from a professional.
"I always encourage people to reach out and seek help because help in some regard usually helps," said Goodwin.
Parents can start that conversation with the child's primary care provider — a family doctor, nurse practitioner or pediatrician.
Parents can also contact Community Mental Health, go to a mental health walk-in clinic or, if the situation is urgent, can go to the hospital emergency department.
Hutt said parents are also welcome to contact the student well-being teams at the school their child attends, though those teams are only available in certain schools at this point.
"Parents are welcome to call us," she said. "They don't have to have an open file with us or anyone else. We are accessible to parents as well, and work at length with them."
To reach the teams, parents can call the main line at Hernewood Intermediate — 902-859-8710 — for the Westisle family of schools or the main line at Montague Regional High — 902-838-0835 — for the Montague family of schools.
There are plans to roll the the student well-being teams out in all Island schools by 2019. If a child attends a school that doesn't have a well-being team, they can contact the school counsellor or principal of the school.
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